herbs 1 10052021

A[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Acacia senegalGum arabicA natural gum sourced from hardened sap of various species of acacia tree used as a binder and emulsifier.[citation needed]
Achillea millefoliumCommon yarrowPurported to be a diaphoreticastringent,[5] tonicstimulant and mild aromatic.
Actaea racemosaBlack cohoshHistorically used for arthritis and muscle pain, used more recently for conditions related to menopause and menstruation.[6]
Aesculus hippocastanumHorse chestnutIts seeds, leaves, bark, and flowers have been used medicinally for many centuries. The raw plant materials are toxic unless processed.[7]
Ageratina altissimaWhite snakerootRoot tea has been used to treat diarrheakidney stones, and fever. A root poultice can be used on snakebites. The smoke from burning leaves is used to revive unconscious people.[8][unreliable medical source?] The plant contains the toxin tremetol which causes milk sickness, a sometimes fatal condition.[9]
Alcea roseaCommon hollyhockBelieved to be an emollient and laxative. It is used to control inflammation, to stop bedwetting and as a mouthwash in cases of bleeding gums.[10]
Alisma plantago-aquaticaWater-plantainUsed for the urinary tract.[11]
Allium sativumGarlicWidely used as an antibiotic[12][13][14][15] and, more recently, for treating cardiovascular disease[16][17] Garlic is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and has antidepressant-like effects on mice[18] so might be used as a herbal antidepressant or anxiolytic in humans.[19]
Aloe veraAloe veraLeaves are widely used to heal burnswounds and other skin ailments.[20][21]
Althaea officinalisMarsh-mallowUsed for over 2,000 years as both a food and a medicine.[4]
Amorphophallus konjacKonjacSignificant dietary source of glucomannan,[22][23] which is used in treating obesity,[24] constipation,[25] and reducing cholesterol.[26]
Anemone hepaticaCommon hepaticaHistorically used to treat liver diseases, it is still used in alternative medicine today. Other modern applications by herbalists include treatments for pimplesbronchitis and gout.[27]
Angelica archangelicaGarden angelicaRoots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea or tincture for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, nervous system, and also against fever, infections, and flu.[28]
Angelica sinensisDong quaiUsed for thousands of years in Asia, primarily in women’s health.[29]
Apium graveolensCelerySeed is used only occasionally in tradition medicine. Modern usage is primarily as a diuretic.[30]
Arctium lappaBurdockUsed traditionally as a diuretic and to lower blood sugar[31] and, in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for sore throat and symptoms of the common cold.[32]
Arnica montanaArnicaUsed as an anti-inflammatory[33] and for osteoarthritis.[34] The US Food and Drug Administration has classified Arnica montana as an unsafe herb because of its toxicity.[35] It should not be taken orally or applied to broken skin where absorption can occur.[35]
Astragalus propinquusAstragalusLong been used in traditional Chinese medicine to strengthen the immune system, and is used in modern China to treat hepatitis and as an adjunctive therapy in cancer.[36]
Atropa belladonnaBelladonnaAlthough toxic, was used historically in Italy by women to enlarge their pupils, as well as a sedative, among other uses. The name itself means “beautiful woman” in Italian.[37]
Azadirachta indicaNeemUsed in India to treat worms, malariarheumatism and skin infections among many other things. Its many uses have led to neem being called “the village dispensary” in India.[38]

B[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Bellis perennisDaisyFlowers have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea (or the leaves as a salad) for treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract.[39]
Berberis vulgarisBarberryLong history of medicinal use, dating back to the Middle Ages particularly among Native Americans. Uses have included skin ailmentsscurvy and gastro-intestinal ailments.[40]
Borago officinalisBorageUsed in hyperactive gastrointestinalrespiratory and cardiovascular disorders,[41] such as gastrointestinal (coliccrampsdiarrhea), airways (asthmabronchitis), cardiovascular, (cardiotonicantihypertensive and blood purifier), urinary (diuretic and kidney/bladder disorders).[42]
Broussonetia kurziiSalaeKnown as Salae in Thailand where this species is valued as a medicinal plant.[43]

C[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Calendula officinalisMarigoldAlso named calendula, has a long history of use in treating wounds and soothing skin.[44]
CannabisHemp, Cannabis, Marijuana, Indian hemp, GanjaUsed worldwide since ancient times as treatment for various conditions and ailments including pain, inflammation, gastrointestinal issues such as IBS, muscle relaxation, anxiety, Alzheimer’s and dementiaADHDautism, cancer, cerebral palsy, recurring headaches, Crohn’s disease, depression, epilepsy, glaucoma, insomnia, and neuropathy among others.[45]
Capsicum annuumCayenneType of chili that has been used as both food and medicine for thousands of years. Uses have included reducing pain and swelling, lowering triglyceride and cholesterol levels and fighting viruses and harmful bacteria, due to high levels of Vitamin C.[46][47][48]
Capsicum frutescensChiliIts active ingredient, capsaicine, is the basic of commercial pain-relief ointments in Western medicine. The low incidence of heart attack in Thais may be related to capsaicine’s fibronolytic action (dissolving blood clots).[49]
Carica papayaPapayaUsed for treating wounds and stomach troubles.[50]
Cassia occidentalisCoffee sennaUsed in a wide variety of roles in traditional medicine, including in particular as a broad-spectrum internal and external antimicrobial, for liver disorders, for intestinal worms and other parasites and as an immune-system stimulant.[51][52]
Catha edulisKhatMild stimulant used for thousands of years in Yemen, and is banned today in many countries. Contains the amphetamine-like substance cathinone.[citation needed]
Cayaponia espelinaSão Caetano melonIt is a diuretic and aid in the treatment of diarrhea and syphilis.[53]
Centaurea cyanusCornflowerIn herbalism, a decoction of cornflower is effective in treating conjunctivitis and as a wash for tired eyes.[54]
Chrysopogon zizanioidesVetiverUsed for skin care.[55]
Cinchona spec.CinchonaGenus of about 38 species of trees whose bark is a source of alkaloids, including quinine. Its use as a febrifuge was first popularized in the 17th century by Peruvian Jesuits.[56]
Citrus × aurantiumBitter orangeUsed in traditional Chinese medicine and by indigenous peoples of the Amazon for nauseaindigestion and constipation.[57]
Citrus limonLemonAlong with other citruses, it has a long history of use in Chinese and Indian traditional medicine.[58] In contemporary use, honey and lemon is common for treating coughs and sore throat.
Citrus trifoliataTrifoliate orange, bitter orangeFruits of Citrus trifoliata are widely used in Oriental medicine as a treatment for allergic inflammation.[59]
Cissampelos pareiraVelvetleafUsed for a wide variety of conditions.[60]
Cnicus benedictusBlessed thistleUsed during the Middle Ages to treat bubonic plague. In modern times, herbal teas made from blessed thistle are used for loss of appetiteindigestion and other purposes.[61]
Crataegus monogyna and Crataegus laevigataHawthornFruit has been used for centuries for heart disease. Other uses include digestive and kidney related problems.[62]
Curcuma longaTurmericSpice that lends its distinctive yellow color to Indian curries, has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to aid digestion and liver function, relieve arthritis pain, and regulate menstruation.[63]
Cypripedium parviflorumYellow lady’s slipperThe Cypripedium species have been used in native remedies for dermatitis, tooth aches, anxiety, headaches, as an antispasmodic, stimulant and sedative. However, the preferred species for use are Cyp. parviflorum and Cyp.acaule, used as topical applications or tea.[64][65]

D[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Digitalis lanataDigitalis or foxgloveIt came into use in treating cardiac disease in late 18th century England in spite of its high toxicity.a Its use has been almost entirely replaced by the pharmaceutical derivative Digoxin, which has a shorter half-life in the body, and whose toxicity is therefore more easily managed.[66] Digoxin is used as an antiarrhythmic agent and inotrope.[67]

E[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Echinacea purpureaPurple coneflowerThis plant and other species of Echinacea have been used for at least 400 years by Native Americans to treat infections and wounds, and as a general “cure-all” (panacea). It is currently used for symptoms associated with cold and flu.[68][69]
Equisetum arvenseHorsetailDates back to ancient Roman and Greek medicine, when it was used to stop bleeding, heal ulcers and wounds, and treat tuberculosis and kidney problems.[70]
Eriodictyon crassifoliumYerba SantaUsed by the Chumash people to keep airways open for proper breathing.[71] The US Forest Service profile[72] for Eriodictyon crassifolium provides information on species distribution; taxonomic relationships; ecological and evolutionary considerations for restoration; growth form and distinguishing traits; habitat characteristics; projected future suitable habitat; growth, reproduction and dispersal; biological interactions; ecological genetics; seed characteristics, germination requirements and processing; and plant uses including agriculture, restoration, and traditional products, plus an extensive bibliography. It is part of Riverside-Corona Resource Conservation District’s resource materials collection on native plant recommendations for southern California ecoregions.
Erythroxylum cocaCocaUsed as coca tea or chewed, traditionally as a stimulant to overcome fatigue, hunger, thirst, and altitude sickness.[73] Also used as an anesthetic and analgesic.[74]
Eschscholzia californicaCalifornian poppyUsed as an herbal remedy: an aqueous extract of the plant has sedative and anxiolytic actions.[75]
Eucalyptus globulusEucalyptusLeaves were widely used in traditional medicine as a febrifuge.[76] Eucalyptus oil is commonly used in over-the-counter cough and cold medications, as well as for an analgesic.[77]
Euonymus atropurpureusWahooPlant is a purgative and might affect the heart.[78]
Euphorbia hirtaAsthma-plantUsed traditionally in Asia to treat bronchitic asthma and laryngeal spasm.[79][80] It is used in the Philippines for dengue fever.[81]
EuphrasiaEyebrightUsed for eye problems, mental depression, oxygenation and radiation poisoning.[82]
Euterpe oleraceaAçaiAlthough açai berries are a longstanding food source for indigenous people of the Amazon, there is no evidence that they have historically served a medicinal, as opposed to nutritional role. In spite of their recent popularity in the United States as a dietary supplement, there is currently no evidence for their effectiveness for any health-related purpose.[83]

F[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ferula assa-foetidaAsafoetidaMight be useful for IBS, high cholesterol, and breathing problems.[84]
Frangula alnusAlder buckthornBark (and to a lesser extent the fruit) has been used as a laxative, due to its 3 – 7% anthraquinone content. Bark for medicinal use is dried and stored for a year before use, as fresh bark is violently purgative; even dried bark can be dangerous if taken in excess.[85]
Fumaria officinalisFumitoryTraditionally thought to be good for the eyes and to remove skin blemishes. In modern times herbalists use it to treat skin diseases and conjunctivitis, as well as to cleanse the kidneys. However, Howard (1987) warns that fumitory is poisonous and should only be used under the direction of a medical herbalist.[86]

G[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
GalanthusSnowdropIt contains an active substance called galantamine, which is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Galantamine (or galanthamine) can be helpful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, though it is not a cure.[87]
Geranium robertianumRobert geraniumIn traditional herbalism, it was used as a remedy for toothache and nosebleeds[88] and as a vulnerary (used for or useful in healing wounds).[89]
Ginkgo bilobaGinkgoThe leaf extract has been used to treat asthmabronchitisfatigueAlzheimer’s and tinnitus.[90]
Glechoma hederaceaGround-ivyIt has been used as a “lung herb”.[91] Other traditional uses include as an expectorant, astringent, and to treat bronchitis.[92] The essential oil of the plant has been used for centuries as a general tonic for colds and coughs, and to relieve congestion of the mucous membranes.
Glycyrrhiza glabraLicorice rootIt has a long history of medicinal usage in Eastern and Western medicine. Uses include stomach ulcersbronchitis, and sore throat, as well as infections caused by viruses, such as hepatitis.[93]

H[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Hamamelis virginianaCommon witch-hazelIt produces a specific kind of tannins called hamamelitannins. One of those substances displays a specific cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cells.[94]
Hippophae rhamnoidesSea buckthornThe leaves are used as herbal medicine to alleviate cough and fever, pain, and general gastrointestinal disorders as well as to cure dermatologic disorders. Similarly, the fruit juice and oils can be used in the treatment of liver disease, gastrointestinal disorders, chronic wounds or other dermatological disorders.[95]
Hoodia gordoniiHoodiaThe plant is traditionally used by Kalahari San (Bushmen) to reduce hunger and thirst. It is currently marketed as an appetite suppressant.[96]
Hydrastis canadensisGoldensealIt was used traditionally by Native Americans to treat skin diseases, ulcers, and gonorrhea. More recently, the herb has been used to treat the respiratory tract and a number of other infections.[97]
Hypericum perforatumSt. John’s wortWidely used within herbalism for depression. Evaluated for use as an antidepressant, but with ambiguous results.[98][99][100]
Hyssopus officinalisHyssopIt is used for digestive and intestinal problems including liver and gallbladder conditions, intestinal pain, intestinal gas, colic, and loss of appetite. It is also used for respiratory problems including coughs, the common cold, respiratory infections, sore throat, and asthma.[101]

I[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ilex paraguariensisYerba mateIt has been claimed to have various effects on human health and these effects have been attributed to the high quantity of polyphenols found in mate tea.[102] Mate contains compounds that act as an appetite suppressant,[103] increases mental energy and focus,[104] and improves mood.[105] Yerba mate also contains elements such as potassiummagnesium, and manganese.[106]
Illicium verumStar aniseIt is the major source of the chemical compound shikimic acid, a primary precursor in the pharmaceutical synthesis of anti-influenza drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu).[107]
Inula heleniumElecampaneIt is used in herbal medicine as an expectorant and for water retention.[108]

J[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Jasminum officinaleJasmineIt is used in dermatology as either an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory agent.[109]

K[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Knautia arvensisField scabiousThe whole plant is astringent and mildly diuretic. An infusion is used internally as a blood purifier and externally for treating cuts, burns and bruises.[110]

L[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Larrea tridentataChaparralThe leaves and twigs are used by Native Americans to make a herbal tea used for a variety of conditions, including arthritiscancer and a number of others. Subsequent studies have been extremely variable, at best. Chaparral has also been shown to have high liver toxicity, and has led to kidney failure, and is not recommended for any use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or American Cancer Society.[111][112]
Laurus nobilisBay laurelAqueous extracts of bay laurel can be used as astringents and even as a reasonable salve for open wounds.[113] In massage therapy, the essential oil of bay laurel is reputed to alleviate arthritis and rheumatism, while in aromatherapy it is used to treat earaches and high blood pressure.[114]
Lavandula angustifoliaLavenderIt was traditionally used as an antiseptic and for mental health purposes. It was also used in ancient Egypt in mummifying bodies. There is little scientific evidence that lavender is effective for most mental health uses.[115]
Lawsonia inermisHennaThe plants exhibits potential antibacterial activity. The alcoholic extract of the root has antibacterial activity due to the presence of flavonoid and alkaloids. Henna is also thought to show anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects in experimental animals.[116]
Leucojum aestivumSummer snowflakeIt is known to contain Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine in pharmaceutical format). It is used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and various other memory impairments, in particular those of vascular origin.[citation needed]
Linum usitatissimumFlaxseedThe plant is most commonly used as a laxativeFlaxseed oil is used for different conditions, including arthritis.[117]

M[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Magnolia officinalisMagnolia-barkThe bark contains magnolol and honokiol, two polyphenolic compounds. Preclinical studies have evaluated their various potential applications including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antimicrobial properties.[118]
Malva sylvestrisMallowThe seeds are used internally in a decoction or herbal tea[119] as a demulcent and diuretic, and the leaves made into poultices as an emollient for external applications.
Matricaria recutita and Anthemis nobilisChamomileIt has been used over thousands of years for a variety of conditions, including sleeplessness, anxiety, and gastrointestinal conditions such as upset stomach, gas, and diarrhea.[120]
Medicago sativaAlfalfaThe leaves are used to lower cholesterol, as well as forum kidney and urinary tract ailments, although there is insufficient scientific evidence for its efficacy.[121]
Melaleuca alternifoliaTea tree oilIt has been used medicinally for centuries by Australian aboriginal people. Modern usage is primarily as an antibacterial or antifungal agent.[122]
Melissa officinalisLemon balmIt is used as a sleep aid and digestive aid.[123]
Mentha x piperitaPeppermintIts oil, from a cross between water mint and spearmint, has a history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, including nauseaindigestion, and symptoms of the common cold.[124]
Mitragyna speciosaKratomKratom is known to prevent or delay withdrawal symptoms in an opioid-dependent individual, and it is often used to mitigate cravings thereafter. It can also be used for other medicinal purposes. Kratom has been traditionally used in regions such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia.[125]
Momordica charantiaBitter melonThe plant is used as an agent to reduce the blood glucose level.[126]
Morinda citrifoliaNoniIt has a history of use as for joint pain and skin conditions.[127]
Moringa oleiferaDrumstick treeIt is used for food and traditional medicine. It is undergoing preliminary research to investigate potential properties of its nutrients and phytochemicals.[citation needed]

N[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Nasturtium officinaleWatercressIt may be diuretic and antibacterial.[128]
Nelumbo nuciferaLotusSacred lotus has been the subject of a number of in-vitro and animal studies, exploring its pharmacologic effects, including antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-infective, hyperlipidemic, and psychopharmacologic activity[129] although clinical trials are lacking.
Nigella sativaNigella, black-caraway, black-cumin, and kalonjiIt has efficacy as a therapy, mainly using the seed oil extract, volatile oil, and isolated constituent thymoquinone.[130] One meta-analysis of clinical trials concluded that N. sativa has a short-term benefit on lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure.[131]

O[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Ocimum tenuiflorumTulsi or holy basilIt is used for a variety of purposes in traditional medicine; tulsi is taken in many forms: as herbal tea, dried powder, fresh leaf or mixed with ghee. Essential oil extracted from Karpoora tulasi is mostly used for medicinal purposes and in herbal cosmetics.[132]
OenotheraEvening primroseIts oil has been used since the 1930s for eczema, and more recently as an anti-inflammatory.[133]
Origanum vulgareOreganoUsed as an abortifacient in folk medicine in some parts of Bolivia and other northwestern South American countries, though no evidence of efficacy exists in Western medicine. Hippocrates used oregano as an antiseptic, as well as a cure for stomach and respiratory ailments. A Cretan oregano (O. dictamnus) is still used today in Greece as a palliative for sore throat. Evidence of efficacy in this matter is lacking.[citation needed]

P[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Panax spec.GinsengUsed medicinally, in particular in Asia, for over 2,000 years, and is widely used in modern society.[134]
Papaver somniferumOpium poppyThe plant is the plant source of morphine, used for pain relief. Morphine made from the refined and modified sap is used for pain control in terminally ill patients. Dried sap was used as a traditional medicine until the 19th century.[citation needed]
PassifloraPassion flowerThought to have anti-depressant properties. Unknown MOA. Used in traditional medicine to aid with sleep or depression.[citation needed]
Peganum harmalaSyrian Rue (aka Harmal)Can be used as an antidepressant, but carries significant risk. Used in traditional shamanistic rites in the amazon, and is a component of Ayahuasca, Caapi or Yajé (which is actually usually Banisteriopsis caapi but has the same active alkaloids).[citation needed]
Pelargonium sidoidesUmckaloabo, or South African GeraniumIt is used in treating acute bronchitis.[135]
Piper methysticumKavaThe plant has been used for centuries in the South Pacific to make a ceremonial drink with sedative and anesthetic properties. It is used as a soporific, as well as for asthma and urinary tract infection.[136]
Piscidia erythrina / Piscidia piscipulaJamaica dogwoodThe plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety, despite serious safety concerns.[137] A 2006 study suggested medicinal potential.[138]
Plantago lanceolataPlantainIt is used frequently in herbal teas and other herbal remedies.[139] A tea from the leaves is used as a highly effective cough medicine. In the traditional Austrian medicine Plantago lanceolata leaves have been used internally (as syrup or tea) or externally (fresh leaves) for treatment of disorders of the respiratory tract, skin, insect bites, and infections.[140]
Platycodon grandiflorusPlatycodon, balloon flowerThe extracts and purified platycoside compounds (saponins) from the roots may exhibit neuroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, improved insulin resistance, and cholesterol-lowering properties.[141]
Polemonium reptansAbscess rootIt is used to reduce fever, inflammation, and cough.[142]
Psidium guajavaGuavaIt has a rich history of use in traditional medicine. It is traditionally used to treat diarrhea; however, evidence of its effectiveness is very limited.[143][144]
Ptelea trifoliataWafer AshThe root bark is used for the digestive system.[145] Also known as hoptree.
Pulmonaria officinalisLungwortUsed since the Middle Ages to treat and/or heal various ailments of the lungs and chest.[citation needed]

Q[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Quassia amaraAmargo, bitter-woodA 2012 study found a topical gel with 4% Quassia extract to be a safe and effective cure of rosacea.[146]

R[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Reichardia tingitanaFalse sowthistleUses in folk medicine have been recorded in the Middle East, its leaves being used to treat ailments such as constipation, colic and inflamed eyes.[147]
Rosa majalisCinnamon roseIt yields edible hip fruits rich in vitamin C, which are used in medicine[148] and to produce rose hip syrup.
Rosmarinus officinalisRosemaryIt has been used medicinally from ancient times.[citation needed]
Ruellia tuberosaMinnieroot, fever root, snapdragon rootIn folk medicine and Ayurvedic medicine it has been used as a diureticanti-diabeticantipyreticanalgesicantihypertensivegastroprotective, and to treat gonorrhea.[149]
Rumex crispusCurly dock or yellow dockIn Western herbalism the root is often used for treating anemia, due to its high level of iron.[150] The plant will help with skin conditions if taken internally or applied externally to things like itching, scrofula, and sores. It is also used for respiratory conditions, specifically those with a tickling cough that is worse when exposed to cold air. It mentions also passing pains, excessive itching, and that it helps enlarged lymphs.[151]

S[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Salix albaWhite willowPlant source of salicylic acid, white willow is like the chemical known as aspirin, although more likely to cause stomach upset as a side effect than aspirin itself which can cause the lining in your stomach to be destroyed. Used from ancient times for the same uses as aspirin.[152]
Salvia officinalisSageShown to improve cognitive function in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.[153][154]
Sambucus nigraElderberryThe berries and leaves have traditionally been used to treat painswellinginfectionscoughs, and skin conditions and, more recently, flucommon coldfeversconstipation, and sinus infections.[155]
Santalum albumIndian sandalwoodSandalwood oil has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common coldsbronchitisskin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies.[156]
Santolina chamaecyparissusCotton lavenderMost commonly, the flowers and leaves are made into a decoction used to expel intestinal parasites.[citation needed]
Saraca indicaAshoka treeThe plant is used in Ayurvedic traditions to treat gynecological disorders. The bark is also used to combat oedema or swelling.[157]
Satureja hortensisSummer savoryIts extracts show antibacterial and antifungal effects on several species including some of the antibiotic resistant strains.[158][159][160]
Sceletium tortuosumKannaAfrican treatment for depression. Suggested to be an SSRI or have similar effects, but unknown mechanism of activity.[citation needed]
Senna auriculataAvaram sennaThe root is used in decoctions against feversdiabetes, diseases of urinary system and constipation. The leaves have laxative properties. The dried flowers and flower buds are used as a substitute for tea in case of diabetes patients. The powdered seed is also applied to the eye, in case of chronic purulent conjunctivitis.[citation needed]
Sesuvium portulacastrumShoreline purslaneThe plant extract showed antibacterial and anticandidal activities and moderate antifungal activity.[161]
Silybum marianumMilk thistleIt has been used for thousands of years for a variety of medicinal purposes, in particular liver problems.[162]
Stachytarpheta cayennensisBlue snakeweedExtracts of the plant are used to ease the symptoms of malaria. The boiled juice or a tea made from the leaves or the whole plant is taken to relieve fever and other symptoms. It is also used for dysenterypain, and liver disorders.[163] A tea of the leaves is taken to help control diabetes in Peru and other areas.[164] Laboratory tests indicate that the plant has anti-inflammatory properties.[165]
Stellaria mediaCommon chickweedIt has been used as a remedy to treat itchy skin conditions and pulmonary diseases.[166] 17th century herbalist John Gerard recommended it as a remedy for mange. Modern herbalists prescribe it for iron-deficiency anemia (for its high iron content), as well as for skin diseasesbronchitisrheumatic pains, arthritis and period pain.[167]
Strobilanthes callosusKarvyThe plant is anti-inflammatoryantimicrobial,[168] and anti-rheumatic.[169]
Symphytum officinaleComfreyIt has been used as a vulnerary and to reduce inflammation.[170] It was also used internally in the past, for stomach and other ailments, but its toxicity has led a number of other countries, including Canada, Brazil, Australia, and the United Kingdom, to severely restrict or ban the use of comfrey.[171]
Syzygium aromaticumCloveThe plant is used for upset stomach and as an expectorant, among other purposes. The oil is used topically to treat toothache.[172]

T[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Tanacetum partheniumFeverfewThe plant has been used for centuries for feversheadachesstomach achestoothachesinsect bites and other conditions.[173]
Taraxacum officinaleDandelionIt was most commonly used historically to treat liver diseaseskidney diseases, and spleen problems.[174]
Teucrium scordiumWater germanderIt has been used for asthma, diarrhea, fever, intestinal parasites, hemorrhoids, and wounds.[175]
Thymus vulgarisThymeThe plant is used to treat bronchitis and cough. It serves as an antispasmodic and expectorant in this role. It has also been used in many other medicinal roles in Asian and Ayurvedic medicine, although it has not been shown to be effective in non-respiratory medicinal roles.[176]
Tilia cordataSmall-leaved lindenIn the countries of Central, Southern and Western Europe, linden flowers are a traditional herbal remedy made into an herbal tea called tisane.[177]
Tradescantia zebrinaInchplantIt is used in southeast Mexico in the region of Tabasco as a cold herbal tea, which is named Matali.[178] Skin irritation may result from repeated contact with or prolonged handling of the plant, particularly from the clear, watery sap (a characteristic unique to T. zebrina as compared with other types).
Trema orientalisCharcoal-treeThe leaves and the bark are used to treat coughssore throatsasthmabronchitisgonorrheayellow fevertoothache, and as an antidote to general poisoning.[179]
Trifolium pratenseRed cloverThe plant is an ingredient in some recipes for essiac tea. Research has found no benefit for any human health conditions.[180]
Trigonella foenum-graecumFenugreekIt has long been used to treat symptoms of menopause, and digestive ailments. More recently, it has been used to treat diabetesloss of appetite and other conditions.[181]
Triticum aestivumWheatgrassIt may contain antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds.[182]
Turnera subulataWhite buttercupIt is used for skin, gastrointestinal, and respiratory ailments.[citation needed]

U[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Uncaria tomentosaCat’s clawIt has a long history of use in South America to prevent and treat disease.[183]
Urtica dioicaCommon nettle, stinging nettleIt has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea or fresh leaves) to treat disorders of the kidneys and urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, locomotor system, skin, cardiovascular system, hemorrhage, influenza, rheumatism, and gout.[184]

V[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Vaccinium spec.BlueberriesThey are of current medical interest as an antioxidant[185][186] and for urinary tract ailments.[187]
Vaccinium macrocarponCranberryIt was used historically as a vulnerary and for urinary disorders, diarrheadiabetes, stomach ailments, and liver problems. Modern usage has concentrated on urinary tract related problems.[188]
Vaccinium myrtillusBilberryIt is used to treat diarrheascurvy, and other conditions.[189]
Valeriana officinalisValerianIt has been used since at least ancient Greece and Rome for sleep disorders and anxiety.[190]
Verbascum thapsusCommon mulleinIt contains glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide and potential anti-tumoral action. These compounds are concentrated in the flowers.[191]
Verbena officinalisVerbenaIt is used for sore throats and respiratory tract diseases.[192]
Vernonia amygdalinaBitter leafThe plant is used by both primates and indigenous peoples in Africa to treat intestinal ailments such as dysentery.[193][194]
Veronica officinalisVeronicaThe plant is used for sinus and ear infections.[195]
Viburnum tinusLaurustinusV. tinus has medicinal properties. The active ingredients are viburnin (a substance or more probably a mixture of compounds) and tannins. Tannins can cause stomach upset. The leaves when infused have antipyretic properties. The fruits have been used as purgatives against constipation. The tincture has been used lately in herbal medicine as a remedy for depression. The plant also contains iridoid glucosides.[196]
Viola tricolorWild pansyIt is one of many viola plant species containing cyclotides. These small peptides have proven to be useful in drug development due to their size and structure giving rise to high stability. Many cyclotides, found in Viola tricolor are cytotoxic.[197] This feature means that it could be used to treat cancers.[198][197]
Viscum albumEuropean mistletoeIt has been used to treat seizures, headaches, and other conditions.[199]
Vitex agnus-castusChasteberryIt has been used for over thousands of years for menstrual problems, and to stimulate lactation.[200]
Vitis viniferaGrapeThe leaves and fruit have been used medicinally since the ancient Greeks.[201]

W[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Withania somniferaAshwagandhaThe plant’s long, brown, tuberous roots are used in traditional medicine. In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves are applied externally to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers.[202]

X[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Xanthoparmelia scabrosaSexy footpath lichenIt is a lichen used for sexual dysfunction.[203]

Y[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Youngia japonicaJapanese hawkweedThe plant is antitussive and febrifuge. It is also used in the treatment of boils and snakebites.[204]

Z[edit]

Scientific nameNameDescriptionPicture
Zingiber officinaleGingerGinger is effective for the relief of nausea.[205][206]

Databases[edit]

Databases[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  • ^ Digitalis use in the United States is controlled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and can only be prescribed by a physician. Misuse can cause death.
  • This encyclopedia is not a substitute for medical advice nor a complete description of these herbs, their dangers (up to and including death), and their (in)compatibility with alcohol or other drugs.

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  •  The dictionary definition of herbalism at Wiktionary
  •  Media related to Herbalism at Wikimedia Commons
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